For natural and built systems alike, conditions of stability and determinants of rates of change or evolution of a system are critical elements of study. Stability and Change are the primary concerns of many, if not most scientific and engineering endeavors. “Stability denotes a condition in which some aspects of a system are unchanging, at […]
The way in which an object or living thing is shaped and its substructure determine many of its properties and functions. Structure and Function are complementary properties. “The shape and stability of structures of natural and designed objects are related to their function(s). The functioning of natural and built systems alike depends on the shapes […]
Tracking fluxes of energy and matter into, out of, and within systems helps one understand the systems’ possibilities and limitations. Energy and Matter are essential concepts in all disciplines of science and engineering, often in connection with systems. “The supply of energy and of each needed chemical element restricts a system’s operation—for example, without inputs […]
Defining the system under study—specifying its boundaries and making explicit a model of that system—provides tools for understanding and testing ideas that are applicable throughout science and engineering. Systems and System Models are useful in science and engineering because the world is complex, so it is helpful to isolate a single system and construct a […]
In considering phenomena, it is critical to recognize what is relevant at different measures of size, time, and energy and to recognize how changes in scale, proportion, or quantity affect a system’s structure or performance. Scale, Proportion and Quantity are important in both science and engineering. These are fundamental assessments of dimension that form the […]
Events have causes, sometimes simple, sometimes multifaceted. A major activity of science is investigating and explaining causal relationships and the mechanisms by which they are mediated. Such mechanisms can then be tested across given contexts and used to predict and explain events in new contexts. Cause and effect is often the next step in science, […]
Observed patterns of forms and events guide organization and classification, and they prompt questions about relationships and the factors that influence them. “Patterns exist everywhere—in regularly occurring shapes or structures and in repeating events and relationships. For example, patterns are discernible in the symmetry of flowers and snowflakes, the cycling of the seasons, and the […]
Engineering, Technology, and the Application of Science: Engineering Design – Evidence Statement 4 HS-ETS1-4: Use a computer simulation to model the impact of proposed solutions to a complex real-world problem with numerous criteria and constraints on interactions within and between systems relevant to the problem.
Engineering, Technology, and the Application of Science: Engineering Design – Evidence Statement 3 HS-ETS1-3: Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and trade-offs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts.
Engineering, Technology, and the Application of Science: Engineering Design – Evidence Statement 2 HS-ETS1-2: Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering.