Influence of Engineering, Technology, and Science on Society and the Natural World

How do science, engineering, and the technologies that result from them affect the ways in which people live? How do they affect the natural world? From the earliest forms of agriculture to the latest technologies, all human activity has drawn on natural resources and has had both short- and long-term consequences, positive as well as […]

CCC5 Crosscutting Concept 5 – Energy and Matter: Flows, Cycles, and Conservation

Tracking fluxes of energy and matter into, out of, and within systems helps one understand the systems’ possibilities and limitations. Energy and Matter are essential concepts in all disciplines of science and engineering, often in connection with systems. “The supply of energy and of each needed chemical element restricts a system’s operation—for example, without inputs […]

CCC4 Crosscutting Concept 4 – Systems and System Models

Defining the system under study—specifying its boundaries and making explicit a model of that system—provides tools for understanding and testing ideas that are applicable throughout science and engineering. Systems and System Models are useful in science and engineering because the world is complex, so it is helpful to isolate a single system and construct a […]

CCC3 Crosscutting Concept 3 – Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

In considering phenomena, it is critical to recognize what is relevant at different measures of size, time, and energy and to recognize how changes in scale, proportion, or quantity affect a system’s structure or performance. Scale, Proportion and Quantity are important in both science and engineering. These are fundamental assessments of dimension that form the […]

CCC1 Crosscutting Concept 1 – Patterns

Observed patterns of forms and events guide organization and classification, and they prompt questions about relationships and the factors that influence them. “Patterns exist everywhere—in regularly occurring shapes or structures and in repeating events and relationships. For example, patterns are discernible in the symmetry of flowers and snowflakes, the cycling of the seasons, and the […]